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Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Training and Development

(Refer our High Quality Management Encyclopedia at:

For everything you wanted to know on building leadership and management, refer Shyam Bhatawdekar’s website:

Training and Development Function
  • One of the most important functions in modern business and industrial organizations in the corporate sector
  • It is not just HRM's responsibility, it is the responsibility of all the functional departments of an organization and also of the top and senior management
  • It should in fact be a strategic management intervention for a forward looking, growth oriented organization
  • It is an important motivator for present day professionals
  • Preparation
  • Teaching
  • Guidance
  • Education
  • Instruction
  • Training
  • Growth: progress, enhancement, expansion, maturity, improvement, enlargement
Purposes of Training and Development
  • Competency/skill training and development of individual professionals to fill up the competency/skill gaps and to further improve the levels of proficiency (For details refer and
  • Competency/skill training and development of professionals due to constantly changing business and industrial scenario and therefore, to match up with the requirements or demands of changes on the organizations
  • Preparing the human resources of the organization to exploit the existing and future business opportunities
  • Organizational development: when organization decides to use certain initiatives or interventions and wishes to train and develop a good number of people in the entire organization or the people in certain chosen departments or projects on those initiatives/interventions
  • Creating a learning organization culture
  • Preparing the organization to meet the needs of legal/statutory requirements
  • Training need identification (TNI), development need assessment (DNA) and organization development needs analysis: Inputs to these come from job analysis (job descriptions or position descriptions), performance appraisal system, SWOT analysis for the organization, management decisions on implementation of various initiatives/interventions
  • Deciding as to who will get what kind of training
  • Identifying the internal and external resource persons/organizations to conduct the training programs
  • Developing training modules with syllabus, duration, session plans, training materials etc
  • Deciding if the training will be in-house (internal) or open-house (external) or on-the-job
  • Deciding if the training will be given through extensive long or medium duration formal school/college courses, short duration intensive class/conference room seminars/workshops, training in simulated environment, coaching, mentoring, job rotation, task force deputation, e-training or web based training, outbound programs etc
  • Conducting the training with the assistance of internal and external experts and organizations
  • Training follow up for reaping maximum benefits from training
  • Assessing the effectiveness of training
  • Improving the training process wherever required based on training effectiveness assessment
Also refer: (Trainers’ Qualities), (Presentation Skills)

Training Course/Training Module Design Model
  • Training course/training module objectives.
  • Target audience.
  • Learning objectives.
  • Evaluation plan.
  • Current status.
  • Learning gaps.
  • Design options.
  • Budget analysis.
  • Detailed design.
  • Produce materials.
  • Test course/test module.
  • Revise design.
  • Revise materials.
  • Run course/module.
  • Evaluate outcome.
  • Celebrate success.
Training Methodologies
  • Briefing
  • Lecture
  • Presentation
  • Demonstration
  • Discussion
  • Workshop
  • Case study
  • Individual exercise
  • Group exercise
  • Role play
  • Management game
  • Audio visual
  • T group or sensitivity training
  • Teleconferencing and distant learning
  • Computer based training (CBT)/Interactive learning modules
  • Peer group learning
  • Questions and answers
  • Home work
  • Learning diaries to be maintained by the participants
Training Aids
  • LCD projector with laptop or PC (with necessary software)
  • Video films
  • Over head projector (OHP)
  • Slide projector and slides
  • White board with colored markers
  • Flip charts
  • Tape recorder
  • Samples/Facsimiles
  • Models/Mock-ups
  • Simulators
Evaluation of Effectiveness of a Particular Training Program/Training Module
  • Objectives' and deliverables' fulfilment: The objectives and deliverables of the training program are decided before the training program is designed and developed. Accordingly, the course contents and training methodologies are decided. After the completion of the training program, the participant as well as the trainers/faculty members assess whether the objectives and deliverables as decided were met and to what extent. That gives the measure of effectiveness of training.
  • Pre-training and post-training test scores: The participants of the training program undertake well designed test(s) or quiz at the beginning of the training program and the same test(s) or quiz is administered to the participants at the end of the training program. The improvement in the knowledge/skill levels of the participants is statistically measured giving the extent of impact of the training.
  • Examination: The participants are made to appear for a formal full length examination after attending the training program. The participants are allotted the marks and based on them, their proficiency levels are determined. The effectiveness of training is determined by the proficiency levels attained by the participants.
  • Feedback from the participants: Participants of the training program fill up a well designed questionnaire giving their impressions/feedback of the program. These responses are collated and analysed to examine the effectiveness of training- quantitatively and qualitatively.
  • Oral feedback by participants at the valediction of training program: The valediction of the training program is attended by a few relevant senior managers (including also from HR) and they listen to the participants' learning points. Each participant is allowed a chance to speak as to what did he specifically learnt from the training program. This gives a qualitative assessment of the impact of training on the participants.
  • Projects: Based on the learning in the training programs, the participants are asked to choose a few real life projects that they should complete within a specified time frame. HR department and the participant's manager keep a close follow up on the progress of the projects. The participants are asked to make interim and final presentations at the completion of the projects. The learning points from the training are implemented in working on the projects.
  • Behavioral improvement: Effectiveness of the training is also assessed by finding out it's impact on the participants' on-the-job behavior. The extent of improvement in the participants' knowledge and skill levels as seen from their day to day work accomplishments is observed qualitatively and quantitatively. This should be done by the participants' managers and also by HR department.
Evaluation of Training Function of an Organization

A sample questionnaire is suggested here to assess the effectiveness of training function of an organization. Line managers as well as HR personnel of the organization can give their feedback against each point mentioned in the questionnaire. Mean of all the scores from all the respondents can then be calculated to arrive at the score for the organization.

Choose any one of the five responses against each of the questions given below:

1. Not at all. 2. Little bit. 3. Somewhat. 4. Great degree. 5. Absolutely.

  • Is induction training given its due importance?
  • Is induction training well-planned?
  • Is induction training of sufficient duration?
  • Does induction training provide an excellent opportunity for new entrants to learn comprehensively about the organization?
  • Are norms and values of the organization clearly explained to new employees during induction?
  • Does senior management take interest and spend time with new employees during induction training?
  • Do new recruits find induction program useful in the organization?
  • Is induction training periodically evaluated and improved?
  • Are employees helped to acquire technical knowledge and skills through training?
  • Is there adequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training?
  • Are soft competencies and human relations competencies adequately developed in the organization through training in those competencies?
  • Is training of workers given adequate importance in the organization?
  • Are employees deputed for training programs on the basis of carefully identified developmental needs?
  • Do the persons sponsored for training programs take the training seriously?
  • Do the employees participate in determining their own training needs?
  • Do the employees sponsored for training go with a clear understanding of skills/competencies and knowledge they are expected to acquire from the training?
  • Does HR department conduct briefing and debriefing sessions for employees sponsored for training?
  • Are in-company (in-house) training programs handled by competent internal and external faculty?
  • Is quality of in-company programs of organization excellent?
  • Are senior line managers eager to help their juniors develop through training?
  • Are employees returning from training given adequate free time to reflect and plan improvements in the organization?
  • Do line managers provide the right kind of climate to implement new ideas and methods acquired by their juniors during training?
  • Do line managers utilize and benefit from the training programs?
  • Are external training programs carefully chosen after collecting enough information about their quality and suitability?
  • Is there is a well designed and widely shared training policy in the company?
For More Guidance, Assistance, Training and Consultation


Prodcons Group's training programs (in-company and external) are led by Mr Shyam Bhatawdekar and Dr (Mrs) Kalpana Bhatawdekar, the renowned management educationists and consultants and trainers par excellence, with distinction of having trained more than 150,000 people from around 250 organizations.

Also refer: (Prodcons Group), (Training Programs by Prodcons Group), (Productivity Consultants)

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